Hemingway compiled this reading list for Arnold Samuelson, an aspiring writer who formed a friendship with Hemingway in the spring of 1934. After hitchhiking from Minneapolis to Key West to meet his idol, Samuelson spent nearly a year with the Hemingway family, accompanying the author on fishing trips and drinking sessions. Hemingway regarded reading as fundamental to the process of learning how to write well, and this list of sixteen works gives us an insight into what he considered essential reading for any up-and-coming writer. When Hemingway handled this to Samuelson, he told him:” Here is a list of books any writer should have read as a part of his education … if you haven’t read these, you just aren’t educated.”

They are,

Stephen Crane —

The Blue Hotel

The Open Boat

Madame Bovary – Gustave Flaubert

Dubliners – James Joyce

The Red and the Black – by Stendhal

Of Human Bondage – Somerset Maugham

Anna Karenina – Tolstoy

War and Peace – Tolstoy

Buddenbrooks – Thomas Mann

Hail and Farewell – George Moore

Brothers Karamazov- Dostoyevsky

Oxford Book of English Verse –

The Enormous Room  – E. E. Cummings

Wuthering Heights – Emily Bronte

Far Away and Long Ago – W. H. Hudson

The American – Henry James